[Madden 21 COLTS]Nature: This 100-year cancer model turn!

  People know that tumors can usually consume glucose at high speed.But who loves to eat sugar?perhaps,Not cancer cells.

  in contrast,Noncore cells in tumors – mainly referred to as macrophages – having the highest glucose taken.

  This study has subverted the mainstream cancer metabolic model in the past 100 years.

  Researchers said,Different cells in tumor microenvironment can take different nutrients according to their respective metabolic programs.This findings help to develop new treatment methods and imaging strategies.

  On April 7th,Related papers published in “Nature”.

  One of the paper authorities, Professor of Immune Biology, Vander Bilt, USA, said, Jeffrey Rathmell, Professor Van Delbilt University”We now know that tumors include many types of cells.Surprisingly,Non-cancer cells are actually the main consumption of glucose in tumors.”


  Tumor cell


  Kimryn Rathmell, Bradley Reinfeld, Matthew Madden and Jeffrey Rathmell Discover,Immune Cells,Non-cancer cells,It is the main consumer of glucose in a tumor microenvironment. Image Source: Susan Urmy / VUMC

  Observing 100 years ago

  ”Cancer metabolic field has developed rapidly in the past 20 years.But it is mainly based on OTTO Warburg published in 1922,That is, cancer cells consume glucose at very fast speed.”Rathmell told reporters.

  In fact,Regardless of the form of cancer enters the human body,It starts in the cell level,And through the metabolism of metabolism.

  Professor Smith Chemistry and Biomolecular Engineering, Abe Strook, said,”Cancer has obvious metabolic characteristics,This is one of the earliest features of such diseases found in cells and subcellular levels.”

  Near 100 years agoGerman physiologist, Nobel Award winner Warburg has assumed thatThe growth of tumors is caused by glucose consumed by mitochondria.This is true even in aerobic conditions.

  usually,Healthy cells consume glucose only in the absence of hypoxia.

  This cancer metabolic change is also known as the Warburg effect.

  In fact,At that time, Warburg first speculated that cancer was a metabolic disease.However, the subsequent study proposed that the genetic mutation is the view of the root cause of cancer.

  ”Warburg believes that metabolic defect is the origin of cancer,But today has been overthrown.”Strook said.

  on the other hand,When cancer cells consume glucose,They are done by a process called glycolysis.In this process,A large amount of glucose is converted to lactic acid.

  This is a very low-efficiency glucose usage – consuming sugar in the same time with fatigue muscles,If you do not control,It will cause lactic acidosis.

  Flux balance analysis before the strook group,It is determined that a single cell is used in nutrients during the entire metabolism.It is confirmed that the Warburg effect provides a growth advantage for tumors.However, it is not conducive to tumor cell growth.2018,The related papers are published in “Public Science Library – Computational Biology”.

  Strook said: “The academic community needs to find other ways to prove the importance of glutamine.”

  this time,It seems that there is an answer.

  ”Light” cancer cells

  In fact,The observations of Warburg have another important application – it is the basis for positron emission tomography (PET) tumor imaging.

  PET uses a radioactive glucose tracer (FDG),Can be based on glucose metabolism “lighting” cancer cells.

  But fdg-pet does not always get the result of the clinician expectation.

  ”Over the years,I have been curious why PET scan is not stable?Because I studied kidney cancer,From our understanding of biology,PET should cause a sensation,But the result is not.”

  Director of the University of Van Debilt University W. Kimryn Rathmell said,”and,Jeffrey and which cells I have repeatedly explored using glucose.Is cancer cells or immunocytes?How do they combine?”

  then,Two doctoral students – KimryN team’s Bradley Reinfeld and Jeffrey Group’s Matthew Madden – decided to answer these questions.

  Methods are very simple: use PET tracers for tumor mice.Separate tumor,The tumor is divided into different types of cells using cell surface label proteins and flow cytometry.And measuring radioactivity in cells.

  ”Chinese Science Pursue” learned from Van De Bart University,The research team used two different PET tracers.Tracing glucose,Tracking glutamine; and 6 different tumor models,For example, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer and breast cancer model.

  The results show that,In different cases,Myeline immune cells (mainly macrophages) have the highest glucose amount,Secondly T cells and cancer cells.

  In contrast,The glutamine intake rate of cancer cells is the highest.

  ”We think this is a common phenomenon.Suitable for various types of cancer types.”Madden said.

  No cell “lost”

  In addition,reserch shows,Some cell signaling pathways,Instead of limited nutrients,Differential differences in glucose and glutamine intake.

  This findings form comparison with the mainstream views on metabolic competition in the tumor microenvironment.The latter believes in this competition,Cancer cells “win”,Can consume nutrients and inhibit immune cells.

  And the reality may be,Did not lose.

  ”Traditional views believe that cancer cells have swallowed all glucose,Therefore, immune cells cannot obtain sufficient glucose.Leading that it cannot work.”

  Madden tells the “Chinese Science Information”,”But our data shows thatNutritional intake is not limited.in contrast,Cells consume certain nutrients according to procedures,And they allocate nutrients from themselves: cancer cells takeake glutamine and fatty acids.Immune cells absorb glucose.”

  Researchers said,Knowing the cells using different nutrients in a tumor microenvironment,It helps people target specific types of cells.Study new therapy or tumor imaging method.

  ”We now have more advanced PET radioactive tracer,It is time to consider testing fluorosyl glutamine or other nutrient probes on the patient.”

  Kimryn Rathmell added,These findings are also important to explain the FDG-PET imaging results.

  ”We have been using FDG-PET scanning,Use it to determine the tumor reaction,But it tells us that it may be an inflammatory reaction rather than a tumor reaction.”

  In addition,This study is still a vitality and fun cooperation.

  Rathmell said,Reinfeld and Madden are involved in every experiment.They also contacted their classmates in the medical scientist training project.Explore other tumor models.

  This article is reproduced from other websites,Does not represent a healthy boundary viewpoint and position.If there is any content and picture of the copyright objection,Please contact us in time (Mailbox: Guikequan @ hmkx.CN)

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